Monoclonal Antibodies and Their Uses in Therapy
Keywords:Monoclonal antibody, Cancer, Therapy, Hybridoma, Immune system
AbstractImmune system is the basic defense system that protects the body against disease causing pathogens. The immun system use the most effective mechanisms and protects body against foreign materials called antigen. The antigens encounter primarily natural barriers. The antigens that cross natural barriers encounter immune cells in organs such as bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus. In the first stage, macrophages and phagocytes become active, and in the next stage, B and T lymphocytes are involved in the process. Antibodies produced by B lymphocytes form one of the most important defense mechanism in immune system. This importance of antibody molecules in the immun system has led to scientists work in the field. In 1975, Georges Köhler and Cesar Milstein combined B lymphocytes from mice immunized with sheep red blood cells with the infinite growth of mouse myeloma cells to obtain monoclonal antibody-producing hybrid cells and paving the way for the development of therapeutic antibodies. This hybrid cells have ability to produce monoclonal antibodies just binding only to the desired antigen. Monoclonal antibodies have been used in many areas such as diagnosis, treatment and biochemical analysis of diseases worlwide. Nowadays, studies on monoclonal antibody-based treatment and treatment options are still ongoing. This review will focus on monoclonal antibodies and their uses in therapy.
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