Determination of Effective Diffusion Coefficient of Gemlik Olives in Table Olive Production and The Effects of Salt Concentration On Lactic Acid and Reducing Sugar
Keywords:Salt Concentrations, Gemlik olives, Diffusivity, Lactic acid, Reducing sugar
AbstractOne of the significant crops in Mediterrenean countries is olive (Olea europaea) and an important amount of this fruit are manufactured for direct human consumption. In this study, table olives were produced from Gemlik type of green and black cultivars that grown in Osmaniye, Turkey by using different salt concentrations (8-14%). By the increase of salt concentrations in brines, moisture contents of olives also increased and moisture values of green and black types ranged between 45.24-54.90% and 46.04-56.53% respectively. Salt contents of olives were in the interval of 1.21-5.22% for green olives and 2.32-5.58% for black olives. It was also established that the diffusivity coefficients (Deff) increased due to increasing salt concentrations and found between 4.38 × 10-8- 6.59 × 10-7 (m2s-1) for green olives and black olives as 3.79 × 10-8 - 3.56 × 10-7 (m2s-1). The lactic acid concentration of green olives was higher than black ones and calculated as between 0.439-0.452% and 0.412-0.441%. On the other hand, it was determined that lactic acid production was higher for Gemlik olives that fermented in 10% and 12% brine solutions in comparison with others. Reducing sugar contents of green olives were lower than black ones and recorded in the gap of 4.76-1.88% and 4.89-2.01% during fermentation process.
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