A Research on Fertility, Herd Life, Milk Production and Milk Quality Characteristics of Simmental (Fleckvieh) Cows: 2. Milk Quality





Cattle, Milk fat, Milk protein, Somatic cell count


The aim of this study was to determine the milk quality characteristics of Simmental (SIM) cows of Austrian origin, which have increased the interest of breeders in Türkiye in recent years. For this aim, the milk analysis results of a farm located in Menemen County, İzmir/Türkiye from 2012 to 2021 were used. Milk fat (MF, %), protein (MP, %), lactose (ML, %), total dry matter (TDM, %) contents and somatic cell count (SCC, cell/ml) were determined. In order to determine the current situation, milk samples were taken from the cows (90 heads) in August 2021, and in addition to the above milk components, the solid non-fat (SNF) and freezing point (FP) were determined. The effects of sampling season, calving month, lactation month, sampling season x calving month and sampling season x lactation month interactions were found to be statistically significant for all traits (P<0.05). Parity and calving month effects on Log10SCC were also detected to be statistically significant (P<0.05). The mean MF, MP, ML, TDM, FP and SCC of SIM cattle were 3.71±0.018%, 3.42±0.009%, 4.63±0.009%, 12.49±0.03, -0.535±0.003oC and 5.14±0.01 (138.038 cells/ml), respectively. It was concluded that the milk components of Austrian-origin SIM cattle are not very different from the Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed, however, in the low SCC average for many years, besides the important contribution of the measures taken against mastitis in the farm, the resistance against mastitis may be higher in this genotype. This situation is thought to be the reason why breeders in Türkiye prefer Austrian-origin SIM cattle in addition to high milk yield and carcass weight.


Akbulut Ö. 1998. A review for Simmental cattle performance in Turkey. Atatürk Univ., J. of the Agricultural Faculty, 29(1): 43-49.

Anonymous. 2019. General characteristics of milk. https://acikders.ankara.edu.tr/pluginfile.php/ 97700/ mod_resource/content/0/Konu%204%20-%20Sütün%20 genel%20özellikleri.pdf

Dohoo JR, Leslie KE. 1991. Evaluation of changes in somatic cell counts as indicators of new intramammary infections. Prev. Vet. Med., 10: 225-237.

Kaya İ, Uzmay C, Ayyılmaz T. 2014. Composition, somatic cell count and yield for morning and evening composite milk in Holstein cows milked with unequal intervals (Conference presentation abstract). 25th International Scientific-Experts Congress on Agriculture and Food Industry, Çeşme-İzmir, Turkey.

Koç A. 2006. Lactation milk yields and somatic cell counts of Holstein Friesian and Brown-Swiss cattle reared in Aydın Province. Journal of Animal Production, 47(2):1¬-8.

Koç A. 2007a. Daily milk yield, non-fat dry matter content and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian and Brown-Swiss cows. Acta Veterinaria-Beograd, 57(5-6):523-535.

Koç A. 2007b. A study on milk fat content, non-fat dry matter content and somatic cell count of Montbeliarde and Holstein-Friesian cows. Proceedings of the Dairy Conference of Turkey: 386-394. 25-27 October, İzmir, Türkiye

Koç A. 2008. Factors influencing daily yield, somatic cell count and non-fat dry matter content of milk. The Indian Veterinary Journal, 85:630-632.

Koç A. 2009. A research on milk yield, milk constituents and reproductive performances of Holstein Friesian and Montbeliarde cows (Poster). XVIIth International Congress of FeMeSPRum, Mediterranean Federation of Health and Production of Ruminants”, Perugia, Italy.

Koç A. 2011. A study of the reproductive performance, milk yield, milk constituents, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian and Montbeliarde cows. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 35: 295-302.

Koç A. 2015. Effects of somatic cell count and various environmental factors on milk yield and foremilk constituents of Red-Holstein cows. Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 21(3): 439-447.

Koç A. 2016. A Review on Simmental Raising: 2. Studies in Turkey. Journal of Adnan Menderes University Agricultural Faculty, 13(2): 103 – 112.

Koç A, Arı Ç. 2020. Milk yield, reproduction and milk quality characteristics of Simmental and Red-Holstein cattle raised at a dairy farm in Aydın Province: 2. Milk quality. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology 8(10): 2074-2080, 2020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24925/ turjaf.v8i10.2074-2080.3512.

Koç A, Gürses R. 2020. A study on milk yield, fertility and milk quality characteristics of primiparous Red-Holstein and Holstein-Friesian cows. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 8(12): 2562-2569, 2020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v8i12.2562-2569.3690.

Okuyucu İC, Erdem H. 2017. Variation of milk components according to somatic cell count of cows of different genotypes reared under semi-intensive conditions. Abstract Book. P:39. 3rd ASM International Congress of Agriculture and Environment, Antalya.

Özdede F. 2009. Somatıc cell count in milk produced by dairy cattle farms that are members of cattle breeders society in and for province of Ankara. Phd Thesis, Ankara Univ., Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Deprt. of Animal Science, Ankara, Türkiye.

Polanski S, Czaka H, Latocha M. 1992. The effect of some factors on milk fat and protein percentages of Simmental cows at the Brzozow pedigree farm. Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki, 19(1): 55-65.

SAS. 2004. Statistical analysis system for windows. SAS Institutes Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA.

Şekerden Ö, Doğrul F, Erdem H. 1999. Blood and Milk Protein Polymorphism and Their Effects on Various Production Traits in Simmental Cows. Tr. J. of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 23: Supp: 1: 87-93.

Yılmaz H. 2010. A Research on Milk Production and Milk Quality Traits of Red Holstein. MSC thesis. Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Depart. of Animal Science Adnan Menderes Univ., Aydın, Türkiye.

Yörükoğlu AB. 2019. Composition and quality of cow's milk coming to some high-capacity milk processing facilities in İzmir and their variation according to season and region. MSC Thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Depart. of Animal Science, Ege Univ., İzmir, Türkiye.




How to Cite

Koç, A., & Öner, M. (2023). A Research on Fertility, Herd Life, Milk Production and Milk Quality Characteristics of Simmental (Fleckvieh) Cows: 2. Milk Quality. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 11(12), 2242–2249. https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v11i12.2242-2249.6040



Research Paper

Most read articles by the same author(s)