CO2 Release from a Soil with Improved Organic Matter Content with Farmyard Manure and Biochar under the Irrigation Conditions with Different Water Sources




Ahır gübresi, Arıtılmış atık su, Biyoçar, Toprak nemi ve sıcaklığı, Topraktan CO2 ve H2O salınımı,


In this study, CO2 and H2O release from soil and soil moisture and temperature values were investigated in a one-month wetting-drying cycle under conditions of irrigation of the incubated soil where different organic matter levels [1.21%(control) 1.5%, 2.5%, 3.5%and 4.5%] were obtained by applying farmyard manure and biochar to the soil to improve the soil organic matter content, with freshwater and treated wastewater. The results of the study showed that the CO2 release increased from 29%to 146%in the improved organic matter content of the soil with farmyard manure compared to the control application, while the organic matter levels of 1.5%and 2.5%of the biochar were statistically similar to the control application, but the organic matter, which increased more with biochar, increased the release by 28%and 81%compared to the control application. Irrigation with treated wastewater resulted in 40%more CO2 release than freshwater. While the increased organic matter content of the soil with farmyard manure and biochar results in less H2O release from the soil and more soil moisture, unlike farmyard manure, biochar's feature of reducing H2O release and protecting soil moisture has come to the fore. Higher soil moisture had a reducing effect on soil temperature in applications with high moisture. In addition, CO2 release from the soil showed a significant positive linear relationship with soil moisture, but the effect with soil temperature was insignificant. To improve soil organic matter, the use of biochar, instead of farmyard manure, by reducing CO2 and H2O emissions from the soil and preserving soil moisture is an important result, but the use of biochar as an environmentally friendly application, especially in wastewater irrigation conditions, was found to be recommendable as a result of this study.


Abel S, Peters A, Trinks S, Schonsky H, Facklam M, Wessolek G. 2013. Impact of biochar and hydrochar addition on water retention and water repellency of sandy soil. Geoderma, 202: 183-191.

Ahmed R, Li Y, Mao L, Xu C, Lin W, Ahmed S, Ahmed W. 2019. Biochar effects on mineral nitrogen leaching, moisture content, and evapotranspiration after 15N urea fertilization for vegetable crop. Agronomy, 9(6): 331.

Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Parkinson JA, Quarmby C. 1974. Chemical analysis of ecological materials. Blackwell Scientific Publications. ISBN 9780632003211.

Altıkat S, Kücükerdem HK, Altıkat A, 2018. Effects of wheel traffic and farmyard manure applications on soil CO2 emission and soil oxygen content. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 42: 288-297.

APHA-AWWA-WPCF, 1989. Standart methods for examination of water and wastewater. Available from: EAIaIQobChMI8cO8 p8K24AIVFojVCh3qvwxIEAAYASAAEgLc_vD_BwE&sid=goog&product_id=1974889 [Erişim tarihi: 18.10.2022]

Assefa S, Tadesse S. 2019. The principal role of organic fertilizer on soil properties and agricultural productivity-a review. Agricultural Research & Technology Open Access Journal, 22(2): 556192.

Ayyıldız M. 1983. Sulama suyu kalitesi ve tuzluluk problemleri. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, Ankara.

Bass AM, Bird MI, Kay G, Muirhead B. 2016. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems. Science of the Total Environment, 550: 459-470.

Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS.1982. Nitrogen-Total 1. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Physical and Mineralogical Methods. In: Klute A (editör). Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America.

Cao L, Zhang X, Xu Y, Xiang W, Wang R, Ding F, Hong P, Gao B. 2022. Straw and wood based biochar for CO2 capture: Adsorption performance and governing mechanisms. Separation and Purification Technology, 287: 120592.

Corwin DL, Rhoades JD. 1984. Measurement of inverted electrical conductivity profiles using electromagnetic induction. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48(2): 288-291.

Dubinsky EA, Silver WL, Firestone MK. 2010. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry. Ecology, 91(9): 2604-2612.

Emerson WW, McGarry D. 2003. Organic carbon and soil porosity. Soil Research, 41(1):107-118.

Fang X, Zhu YL, Liu JD, Lin XP, Sun HZ, Tang XH, Hu YL, Huang YP, Yi ZG. 2022. Effects of moisture and temperature on soil organic carbon decomposition along a vegetation restoration gradient of subtropical China. Forests, 13(4): 578.

FAO, 2007. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Coping with water scarcity-Challenge of the twenty-first century, World water day. Available from: [Erişim tarihi: 20.01.2023]

FAO, 2012. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Coping with water scarcity-An action framework for agriculture and food security. Available from: [Erişim tarihi: 20.01.2023]

Fernández-Luqueño F, Reyes-Varela V, Cervantes-Santiago F, Gómez-Juárez C, Santillán-Arias A, Dendooven L. 2010. Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from soil receiving urban wastewater for maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation. Plant and Soil, 331(1): 203-215.

French S, Levy-Booth D, Samarajeewa A, Shannon KE, Smith J, Trevors JT. 2009. Elevated temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations: effects on selected microbial activities in temperate agricultural soils. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 25: 1887-1900. s11274-009-0107-2

Gee GW, Bauder JW. 1986. Particle-Size Analysis. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Methods. In: Klute A (editör). Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America.

HACH, 2005. DR 5000 spectrometer procedures manuel. Available from: search.jsa?keywords=kullan%C4%B1 [Erişim tarihi: 17.10.2018]

HACH, 2010. Hach bodtrak II. Available from: [Erişim tarihi: 17.10.2018]

Jones DL, Murphy DV, Khalid M, Ahmad W, Edwards-Jones G, DeLuca TH. 2011. Short-term biochar-induced increase in soil CO2 release is both biotically and abiotically mediated. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43(8): 1723-1731. ttps://

Jung, S., Park, Y. K., & Kwon, E. E. (2019). Strategic use of biochar for CO2 capture and sequestration. Journal of CO2 Utilization, 32: 128-139. j.jcou.2019.04.012

Kudal M, Müftüoğlu NM. 2014. Kentsel atık su ile sulanan topraklarda bazı verimlilik özelliklerinin incelenmesi. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 2(1): 77-81.

Lahlou FZ, Mackey HR, Al-Ansari T. 2022. Role of wastewater in achieving carbon and water neutral agricultural production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 130706. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.130706

Laird DA. 2008. The charcoal vision: a win-win-win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality. Agronomy Journal, 100(1): 178-181. 10.2134/agronj2007.0161

Lamparter A, Bachmann J, Goebel MO, Woche SK. 2009. Carbon mineralization soil: impact of wetting-drying, aggregation and water repellency. Geoderma, 150: 324-333.

Lehmann J. Cowie A. Masiello CA. Kammann C. Woolf D. Amonette JE. Cayuela ML. Camps-Arbestain M, Whitman T. 2021. Biochar in climate change mitigation. Nature Geoscience, 14(12): 883-892. s41561-021-00852-8

Libohova Z, Seybold C, Wysocki D, Wills S, Schoeneberger P, Williams C, Lindbo D, Stott D, Owens PR. 2018. Reevaluating the effects of soil organic matter and other properties on available water-holding capacity using the National Cooperative Soil Survey Characterization Database. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 73(4): 411-421.

Liu, H, Wang B, Fu C. 2008. Relationships between surface albedo, soil thermal parameters and soil moisture in the semi-arid area of Tongyu, northeastern China. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 25: 757-764.

Mahmoodabadi M, Heydarpour E. 2014. Sequestration of organic carbon influenced by the application of straw residue and farmyard manure in two different soils. International Agrophysics, 28(2): 169-176.

Mancosu N, Snyder RL, Kyriakakıs G, Spano D. 2015. Water Scarcity and Future Challenges for Food Production. Water, 7: 975-992.

McLean EO, 1982. Soil pH and Lime Requirement. Methods of Soil Analysis. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Physical and Mineralogical Methods. In: Klute A (editör). Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America.

Nelson DW, Sommers LE. 1982. Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Physical and Mineralogical Methods. In: Klute A (editör). Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America.

Nwadibia NO, Ugwu EI, Aduloju KA. 2010. Theoretical analysis of the influence of the thermal diffusivity of clay soil on the thermal energy distribution in clay soil of Abakaliki, Nigeria. Research J. of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2(3): 216-221.

Obia A, Mulder J, Martinsen V, Cornelissen G, Børresen T. 2016. In situ effects of biochar on aggregation, water retention and porosity in light-textured tropical soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 155: 35-44.

Ozlu E, Kumar S. 2018. Response of soil organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, and water stable aggregates to long‐term annual manure and inorganic fertilizer. Soil Science Society of America J., 82(5): 1243-1251.

Qin Y. Horvath A. 2020. Use of alternative water sources in irrigation: potential scales, costs, and environmental impacts in California. Environmental Research Communications, 2(5): 055003.

Rao DLN, Pathak H. 1996. Ameliorative influence of organic matter on biological activity of salt‐affected soils. Arid Land Research and Management, 10(4): 311-319.

Roxy MS, Sumithranand VB, Renuka G. 2014. Estimation of soil moisture and its effect on soil thermal characteristics at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. J. of Earth System Sci., 123: 1793-1807.

Taban S, Turan MA, Katkat AV. 2013. Tarımda organik madde ve tavuk gübresi. Tavukçuluk Araştırma Dergisi, 10(1): 9-13.

Topçu P, Yavuz Ö, Tolunay A. 2022. Sürdürülebilir toprak yönetiminde toprak organik karbonunun önemi. Turkish Journal of Forest Science, 6(2): 604-614.

Ungureanu N, Vlăduț V, Voicu G. 2020. Water scarcity and wastewater reuse in crop irrigation. Sustainability, 12(21): 9055.

Wang D, Li C, Parikh SJ, Scow KM. 2019. Impact of biochar on water retention of two agricultural soils-A multi-scale analysis. Geoderma, 340: 185-191.

Yang F, Zhang GL, Yang JL, Li DC, Zhao YG, Liu F, Yang R, Yang F. 2014. Organic matter controls of soil water retention in an alpine grassland and its significance for hydrological processes. Journal of Hydrology, 519: 3086-3093.

Yerli C, Cakmakci T, Sahin U. 2022a. CO2 Emission from soil containing different organic manures in wetting-drying conditions and the relationships of CO2 emission with moisture, temperature and H2O emission. Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Gaziosmanpasa University, 39(3): 161-168.

Yerli C, Cakmakci T, Sahin U. 2022b. CO2 emissions and their changes with H2O emissions, soil moisture, and temperature during the wetting-drying process of the soil mixed with different biochar materials. Journal of Water and Climate Change, 13(12): 4273-4282.

Zhang Q, Wang Y, Wu Y, Wang X, Du Z, Liu X, Song J. 2013. Effects of biochar amendment on soil thermal conductivity, reflectance, and temperature. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 77(5): 1478-1487.

Zhang S, Meurey C, Calvet JC. 2019. Identification of soil-cooling rains in southern France from soil temperature and soil moisture observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19(7): 5005-5020.

Zhang Z, Dong X, Wang S, Pu X. 2020. Benefits of organic manure combined with biochar amendments to cotton root growth and yield under continuous cropping systems Xinjiang, China. Scienctific Reports, 10: 4718.



How to Cite

Yerli, C., & Şahin, Üstün. (2023). CO2 Release from a Soil with Improved Organic Matter Content with Farmyard Manure and Biochar under the Irrigation Conditions with Different Water Sources. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 11(3), 522–531.



Research Paper