Organic Aquaculture and Organic Feeds




Sustainable aquaculture, organic standards, organic feed sources, animal welfare


Environmental awareness is increasing around the world, however, the production of eco-friendly food products has started to gain importance in order to protect nature and reduce dependence on it. In addition, due to the awareness of people, it increases the demand for healthy foods. As a result, organic farming is developing and the number of organic product farms is increasing. Organic aquaculture products have also started to take their place in this big market. Although many of the rules and standards applied in organic agriculture are similar, the rules of organic aquaculture products contain differences on the basis of species. Significant progress has been made with the organic aquaculture production standards determined by international organizations and each country. Organic aquaculture defines organic aquatic organisms that are fed with organic feeds approved by authorized organizations and grown in accordance with all organic farming standards. The main principles of organic culture; health, ecology, fairness and care. Therefore, these basic principles are adhered to when determining organic aquaculture standards. In this review, general and current information were given about the organic aquaculture and organic feeds.


Aarset B, Beckmann S, Bigne E, Beveridge M, Bjorndal T, Bunting J, McDonagh P, Mariojouls C, Muir J, Prothero A, Reisch L, Smith A, Tveteras R, Young J. 2004. The European consumers’ understanding and perceptions of the “organic” food regime: The case of aquaculture. British Food Journal, 106: 93–105. DOI 10.1108/00070700410516784

Ahmed N, Thompson S, Turchini GM. 2020. Organic aquaculture productivity, environmental sustainability, and food security: insights from organic agriculture. Food Security, 12:1253–1267.

Anonymous 2011. Handbook on organic aquaculture. Published by INFOFISH, pp.44.

Awomyi T. 2007. Health, nutritional and consumers’ acceptability assurance of maggot meal inclusion in livestock diet: a review. International Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2: 52-56.

Belforti M, Gai F, Lussiana C, Renna M, Malfatto V, Rotolo L, De Marco M, Dabbou S, Schiavone A, Zoccarato I. 2015. Tenebrio molitor meal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets: effects on animal performance, nutrient digestibility and chemical composition of fillets. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 14: 669–676.

Boehmer S, Gold M, Hauser S, Thomas B, Young A. 2005. Organic Aquaculture, AFSIC Notes 5. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library, U. S. Department of Agriculture. January 2005.

Bullis RA. 2004. Environmental and Social Aspects of Organic Aquaculture. Presented to Technical Development Session, at “Organic Aquaculture and Sea Farming”, June, 2004. Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.

Busacca E, Lembo G. 2019. EU Regulation on Organic Aquaculture. In: Lembo, G., Mente, E. (eds) Organic Aquaculture . Springer, Cham.

Cottee SY, Petersan P. 2009. Animal welfare and organic aquaculture in open systems. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 22: 437–461. DOI 10.1007/s10806-009-9169-2.

Censkowsky U, Altena A. 2013. Scoping study on organic aquaculture in 5 east African countries. Bonn: International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements.

Datta S. 2012. Recent Advances in Aquaculture Technologies (pp.105-120.) Edition: 1st Chapter: Organic Aquaculture -A new approach in fisheries Development Publisher: CIFE Kolkata Centre, Editors: Dr. Subhendu Datta and B. K. Mahapatra. DOI:10.13140/2.1.2151.5841

Demirak A, Ahmet B, Mehmet T. 2006. Environmental impact of the marine aquaculture in Güllük Bay, Turkey. Environ. Monit. Assess., 123 (1–3): 1–12. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-005-9063-y

EC 2006. Council Directive 2006/88/EC with amendments on animal health requirements for aquaculture animals, and on the prevention and control of certain diseases

EC 2007. Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing regulation (EEC) No. 2092/91.

EC 2008. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 889/2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007

EC 2009. Commission regulation (EC) No. 710/2009 amending Regulation (EC) No. 889/2008laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) 834/2007, as regards laying down detailed rules on organic aquaculture.

EU 2013. Regulation (EU) N° 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) N° 1954/2003 and (EC) N° 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) N° 2371/2002 and (EC) N° 639/2004 and Council Decision N° 2004/585/EC.

EU 2014. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) N° 1358/2014 of 18 December 2014 amending Regulation (EC) N° 889/2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) N° 834/2007 as regards the origin of organic aquaculture animals, aquaculture husbandry practices, feed for organic aquaculture animals and products and substances allowed for use in organic aquaculture.

EU 2018. Regulation (EU) No 2018/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Council Regulation (EC) N° 834/2007.

EUMOFA 2022. Organic Aquaculture in the EU. Current Situation, Drivers, Barriers, Potential for Growth. European Market Observatory for Fisheries and Aquaculture Produtcs (EUMOFA), May 2022. doi:10.2771/327564

FAO 2022. FAO Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics, 2022 Yearbook, (15 December, 2022).

FiBL and IFOAM 2022. The World of Organic Agriculture, Statistics, Emerging Trends 2022. (15 December, 2022)

Gould D, Compagnoni A, Lembo G. 2019. Organic Aquaculture: Principles, Standards and Certification. In: Lembo, G., Mente, E. (eds) Organic Aquaculture . Springer, Cham.

Halloran A, Ross N, Eilenberg J, Cerutti A, Bruun S. 2016. Life cycle assessment of edible insect for food protein: a review. Argon. Sustain. Dev. 36: 1-13. insects12060557

Holmer M, Argyrou M, Dalsgaard T, Danovaro R, Diaz-Almela E, Duarte CM, Frederiksen M, Grau A, Karakassis I, Marbà N, Mirto S, Pèrez M, Pusceddu A, Tsapakis M. 2008. Effects of fish farm waste on Posidonia oceanica meadows: synthesis and pro-vision of monitoring and management tools. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56: 1618–1629. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul. 2008.05.020.

Ido A, Hashizume A, Ohta T, Takahashi T, Miura C, Miura T. 2019. Replacement of fish meal by defatted yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae in diet improves growth performance and disease resistance in red seabream (Pagrus major). Animals 9: 100. ani9030100.

IFOAM EU Group. 2010. Organic aquaculture: EU regulations (EC) 834/2007, (EC) 889/2008, (EC) 710/2009: Background, assessment, interpretation. Brussels: IFOAM EU Group.

IFOAM 2017. Norms for organic production and processing.

INFOFISH 2011. Handbook on organic aquaculture. Published by INFOFISH.

Lembo G, Jokumsen A, Spedicato MT, Facchini MS, Bitetto I. 2018. Assessing stakeholders’s experience and sensitivity on key issues for the economic growth of organic aquaculture production. Marine Policy, 87: 84-93 10.1016/j.marpol.2017.10.005.

Li L, Zhao Z, Liu H. 2013. Feasibility of feeding yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) in bioregenerative life support systems as a source of animal protein for humans. Acta Astronautica. 92: 103-109. 10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.03.012

Kerr M, Potthast T. 2018. ‘As close as possible to nature’: Possibilities and constraints for organic aquaculture systems. In S. Springer & H. Grimm (Eds.), Professionals in food chains (pp. 450– 455). Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Lembo G, Mente E. 2019. Organic aquaculture: Impacts and future developments. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Li MH, Robinson EH, Mischke CC, Eugene L, Torrans EL, Bosworth BJ. 2006. Effects of organic fertilization and organic diets on production of channel catfish in earthen ponds. N. Am. J. Aquac., 68: 53–62. DOI: 10.1577/A05-043.1

Lunger AN, Craig S, McLean E. 2006. Replacement of fishmeal in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) diets using an organically certified protein. Aquaculture, 257: 393–399. doi: 10.1016/ j.aquaculture.2005.11.010

Meisch S, Stark M. 2019. Recirculation aquaculture systems: Sustainable innovations in organic food production? Food Ethics, 4: 67–84.

Mente E, Karalazos V, Karapanagiotidis IT, Pita C. 2011. Nutrition in organic aquaculture: an inquiry and a discourse. Aquacult. Nutr., 17 (4): 798–817. j.1365-2095.2010.00846.x

Mente E, Jokumsen A, Carter CG, Antonopoulou E, Tacon AGJ. 2019. Nutrition in relation to organic aquaculture: Sources and strategies. In G. Lembo & E. Mente (Eds.), Organic aquaculture: Impacts and future developments (pp. 141–188). Cham: Springer.

Nairuti RN, Musyoka SN, Yegon MJ, Opiyo MA. 2022. Utilization of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus) Larvae as a Protein Source for Fish Feed – a Review. Aquaculture Studies, 22(2), AQUAST697. 10.4194/AQUAST697

Newton L, Sheppard C, Watson DW, Burtle G. 2005. Using the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, as a value-added tool for the management of swine manure. Report for Mike Williams, Director of the Animal and Poultry Waste Management Centre, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

Nizza A. 2012. What Future for Organic Aquaculture? J Aquacult Res Dev 3: e103 doi:10.4172/2155-9546.1000e103

Perdikaris C, Paschos I. 2010. Organic aquaculture in Greece: a brief review. Rev.Aquacult. 2: 102–105.

Piccolo G, Iaconisi V, Marono S, Gasco L, Loponte R, Nizza S, Bovera F, Parisi G, 2017. Effect of Tenebrio molitor larvae meal on growth performance, in vivo nutrients digestibility, somatic and marketable indexes of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 226, 12–20.

Prein M, Bergleiter S, Ballauf M, Brister D, Halwart M, Hongrat K, Kahle J, Lasner T, Lem A, Lev O, Morrison C, Shehadeh Z, Stamer A, Wainberg AA. 2012. Organic Aquaculture: The Future of Expanding Niche Markets. In: Subasinghe RP, Arthur JR, Bartley DM, De Silva SS, Halwart M, Hishamunda N, Mohan CV, Sorgeloos P. Eds: Farming the Waters for People and Food. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, Phuket, 22-25 September 2010, 549-567.

Rema P, Saravanan S, Armenjon B, Motte C, Dias J. 2019. Graded incorpo-ration of defatted yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet improves growth performance and nutrient retention. Animals, 9: 187.

Stejskal V, Tran HQ, Prokesova M, Gebauer T, Giang PT, Gai F, Gasco L. 2020. Partially defatted Hermetia illucens larva meal in diet of Eu- rasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) Juveniles. Animals, 10: 1–17. https://doi. org/10.3390/ani10101876.

Tacon AGJ, Metian M. 2008. Aquaculture feed and food safety: the role of the Food and Agriculture Organization and the Codex Alimentarius. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci., 1140: 50–59.

Tusche K, Wuertz S, Susenbeth A, Schulz C. 2011. Feeding fish according to organic aquaculture guidelines EC 710/2009: Influence of potato protein concentrates containing various glycoalkaloid levels on health status and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 319: 122-131.

Xie B, Qin J, Yang H, Wang X, Wang YH, Li TY. 2013. Organic aquaculture in China: A review from a global perspective. Aquaculture, 414-415: 243-253. j.aquaculture.2013.08.019.

Yılmaz S, Ergün S, Yiğit M, Yılmaz E. 2022. An Extensive Review on the Use of Feed Additives Against Fish Diseases and Improvement of Health Status of Fish in Turkish Aquaculture Sector. Aquaculture Studies, 22 (3): AQUAST710.




How to Cite

Taşbozan, O. (2023). Organic Aquaculture and Organic Feeds. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 11(4), 774–779.



Review Articles