Pre-Harvest Application of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, Salicylic Acid and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Fruit Quality of ‘Sweetheart’ Sweet Cherry




Organic acids, fruit firmness, fruit color, fruit size


Sweet cherry, which affects consumers’ preferences with its aroma, taste and sensory properties, is a significant fruit species for human health with its bioactive compounds such as organic acids, vitamins and anthocyanins. However, its post-harvest shelf life is very short due to its sensitive fruit structure. Thus, the significant economic losses occur. In the study, effects of pre-harvest Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Salicylic acid (SA) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) applications on fruit quality characteristics and biochemical content in sweet cherry were determined. SA and PGPR treatments increased fruit size, but AVG decreased (If the fruit weight is 4.51 in the control application, 4.49 in the SA application and 4.10 in the PGPR, how can it be said that SA and PGPR increase the fruit weight).  The fruits treated with SA, AVG and PGPR had higher fruit firmness values than the control’-fruits. Salisylic acid treatmens did not affect the rate of soluble solids content(SSC) in fruit, SSC rate was higher in PGPR treated-fruit, but AVG decreased the SSC. Titratable acidity (TA) was lower in PGPR treated-fruit, but was higher in the AVG and SA treated-fruit. Fruits treated with the SA and AVG had higher fruit color values than control fruits, while the lowest color values was obtained with PGPR treatment. In general; PGPR, SA and AVG were effective in the concentration of organic acids, but their effects varied depending on the organic acid compounds. As a result, AVG and SA delayed fruit ripening and fruit softening while PGPR, AVG and SA improved fruit quality (It is not clear how this idea was reached). These applications can be considered as a promising method for improving fruit quality at harvest and  maintaining post-harvest fruit quality of sweet cherry.


Ahmad S, Singh Z, Iqbal Z. 2013a. Effect of pre harvest spray of salicylic acid on the shelf life and quality of ‘Lane late’ sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) during cold storage. Acta Hort.1012:103-112.

Ahmad I, SMA Basra, Afzal I, Farooq M, Wahid A. 2013b. Growth improvement in spring maize through exogenous application of ascorbic acid, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 15: 95–100

Amarante CVTD, Drehmer AMF, Souza F, Francescatto P. 2005. Preharvest spraying with gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) delays fruit maturity and reduces fruit losses on peaches. Rev Bras Frutic 27:1–5.

Arikan Ş, Pirlak L. 2016. Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth, yield and fruit quality of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). 58(4), 221-226.

Bevilacqua AE, Califano AN. 1989. Determination of organic acids in dairy products by high performance liquid chromatography. J Food Sci. 54, 1076}1077, 1079. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb07948.x

Champa WAH, Gill MIS, Mahajan BVC. 2015. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless. J Food Sci Technol 52, 3607–3616 13197-014-1422-7

Cheng SB, Yu Y, Guo JY, Chen GG, Guo MR. 2020. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and chitosan treatment on the storage quality of jujube fruit and its related enzyme activities. Sci. Hortic. 265, 109281. 2020.109281

Cetinbaş M, Butar S. 2013. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) delays maturation and improves fruit size and firmness of cv. ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry. Eur J Hortic Sci 78:126–131

De Silva A, Petterson K, Rothrock C, Moore J. 2000. Growth promotion of highbush blueberry by fungal and bacterial inoculants. HortScience, 35: 1228–1230. 10.21273/HORTSCI.35.7.1228

Di Matteo A, Russo R, Graziani G, Ritieni A, Di Vaioa C. 2017. Characterization of autochthonous sweetcherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of southernItaly for fruit quality, bioactive compounds andantioxidant activity. J Sci Food Agric, 97: 2782–2794. https://doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8106

Díaz-Mula HM, Castillo S, Martínez-Romero D, Valero D, Zapata PJ, Guillén F. 2009. Organoleptic, nutritive and functional properties of sweet cherry as affected by cultivar and ripening stage. Food Sci Technol Int 15:535–543. https://doi:10.1177/1082013209351868

Esti M, Cinquanta L, Sinesio F, Moneta E, Di Matteo M. 2002. Physicochemical and sensory fruit characteristics of two sweet cherry cultivars after cool storage Food Chem., 76, pp. 399-405.

Esitken A. 2011. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in horticultural crops. In: Dinesh KM (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: Crop ecosystems. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 189–235

Esitken A, Karlidag H, Ercisli S, Turan M, Sahin F. 2003. The effects of spraying a growth promoting bacterium on the yield, growth and nutrient element composition of leaves of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Hacıhaliloglu). Aust J Agric Res 54:377–380. https://doi:10.1071/AR02098

Esitken A, Pirlak L, Turan M, Sahin F. 2006. Effects of floral and foliar application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, growth and nutrition of sweet cherry. Scientia Horticulture, 110, 324-327. https://doi:10.1016/ j.scienta.2006.07.023.

Gimenez MJ, Valverde JM, Valero D, Guillen F, Martinez-Romero D, Serano M, Castillo S. 2014. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments. Food Chemistry, 160: 226-232. https://doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2014.03.107

Gimenez MJ, Serrano M, Valverde JM, Martínez-Romero D, Castillo S, Valero D, Guillén F. 2017. Preharvest salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid treatments preserve quality and enhance antioxidant systems during postharvest storage of sweet cherry cultivars. J Sci Food Agric. 2017 Mar;97(4):1220-1228. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7853. Epub 2016 Aug 5. PMID: 27312073. https://doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7853

Greene DW, Schupp JR. 2004. Effect of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on preharvest drop, fruit quality, and maturation of ‘McIntosh’ apples. II. Effect of timing and concentration relationships and spray volume. Hort Science 39:1036–1041. HORTSCI.39.5.1036

Greene DW. 2006. An update on preharvest drop control of apples with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (ReTain). Acta Hortic 727:311–319.

Hayat QS, Irfan M, Ahmad A. 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 68:14-25. https://doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.08.005

Khalid A, Arshad M, Zahir ZA. 2004. Screening plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving growth and yield of wheat. Journal Appl Microbiol 96(3):473–480. https://doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.02161.x

Kim IS, Choi CD, Lee HJ, Byun JK. 2004. Effect of aminoethoxyvinylglycine on preharvest drop, fruit quality of ‘Mibaekdo’ peaches. Acta Hortic 653:173–178.

Mannozzi C, Tylewicz U, Chinnici F, Siroli L, Rocculi P, Rosa MD, Romani S. 2018. Effects of chitosan based coatings enriched with procyanidin by-product on quality of fresh blueberries during storage. Food Chem. 251, 18-24.

Mc Guire. 1992. Reporting of objective color measurements. HortScience; 27:1254–5. SCI.27.12.1254

Ngugi HK, Dedej S, Delaplane KS, Savelle AT, Scherm H. 2005. Effect of flower-applied serenade biofungicide (Bacillus subtilis) on pollination-related variables in rabbiteye blueberry. Biol Control 33:32–38. j.biocontrol.2005.01.002

Noppakoonwong U, Sripinta P, Rath AC, George AP, Nissen RJ. 2005. Effect of Retain and potassium chloride on peach fruit quality in the subtropical highlands of Thailand. Production technologies for low-chill temperate fruits. Reports from the second international workshop„ Chiang Mai, 19–23 April

Ozturk B, Kucuker E, Saracoglu O, Yildiz K, Ozkan Y. 2013. Effect of plant growth regulators on fruit quality and biochemical content of ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry cultivar. J Tekirdag Agric Fac 10:82–89

Ozturk B, Kucuker E, Karaman S, Ozkan Y. 2012. The effects of cold storage and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on bioactive compounds of plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindell cv. 'Black Amber'). Postharvest Biol. Technol. 72, 35-41.

Pirlak L, Turan M, Sahin F, Esitken A. 2007. Floral and foliar application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to apples increases yield, growth and nutrient element contents of leaves. Joumal of Sustainable Agriculture, 30, 145-155. https://doi:10.1300/J064v30n04_11

Romani R, Labavith J, Yamashita T, Hess B, Rae H. 1983. Preharvest AVG treatment of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruits: effects on ripening, color change, and volatiles. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 108, 1046–1049. https://doi:10.21273/jashs.108.6.1046

Serrano E, Storebakken T, Penn M, Overland M, Hansen JO, Mydland LT. 2011. Responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to increasing dietary doses of lupinine, the main quinolizidine alkaloid found in yellow lupins (Lupinus luteus). Aquaculture, 318 (1/2): 122-127. https://doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.05.004

Tripathi M, Munot HP, Schouche Y, Meyer JM, Goel R. 2005. Isolation and functional characterization of siderophore-producing lead and cadmium resistant Pseudomonas putida KNP9. Curr Microbiol 50:233–237. https://doi: 10.1007/s00284-004-4459-4

Valero D, Serrano M. 2010. Postharvest Biology and Technologyfor Preserving Fruit Quality, CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 1stedn.

Wang L, Jin P, Wang J, Jiang LL, Shan TM, Zheng YH. 2015. Effect of baminobutyric acid on cell wall modification and senescence in sweet cherry during storage at 20 C. Food Chem. 175, 471-477. 10.1016/j.foodchem.

Webster AD, Spencer JE, Dover C, Atkinson CJ. 2006. The influence of sprays of gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on fruit abscission, fruit ripening and quality of two sweet cherry cultivars. Acta Hortic 727:467–472. 2006.727.57




How to Cite

Küçüker, E., Celik, K., Kızgin Özcengiz, C., Ogurlu, F., & Aglar, E. (2023). Pre-Harvest Application of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, Salicylic Acid and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Fruit Quality of ‘Sweetheart’ Sweet Cherry . Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 11(4), 871–875.



Research Paper