Occurred Biogenamins Resulting from Microbial Activities
Keywords:Biogenic amines, Microbial decarboxylation, Food products, Toxicity, Health
AbstractBiogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds that can be found in many foods, primarily protein-rich foods, formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids or by amination and transamination of aldehydes and ketones. They are formed as a result of the activities of decarboxylase positive microorganisms such as Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Enterobacteriaceae family in foods. Histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine are the most commonly found biogenic amines in foods. Biogenic amines show toxic effects when taken at high concentrations and can cause important health problems like symptoms of food poisoning such as hypo- and hypertension, migraine, nausea, vomiting, fever and respiratory distress. Despite the toxic effects of the biogenic amines, there is no common legislation yet on the limits of their presence in foods. Increasing interest in safe food nowadays has made it necessary to identify compounds such as biogenic amines. For this purpose, many molecular based techniques have been developed in recent years. In this review, biogenic amines resulting from microbial activities were summarized and discussed these biogenic amines found in food groups and their effect on health.
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