Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Crop Productivity and Economic Return for the Smallholders of Bangladesh: A Systematic Review




Conservation agriculture, Smallholder, Adoption, Productivity, Economic


Agricultural farming is a complicated system that involves continuous interactions among its multiple components over a period of time. The series of activities involved in farming practices have enormous contributions to ensure food security for the humanity. With the passage of time, agriculture sector faces diversified challenges like high food demand of rapidly growing population, scarcity of available resources and adverse effect of climate change. In developing countries like Bangladesh, food sufficiency is mostly achieved through intensive farming which has detrimental effects on natural resources, surrounding environment, and the whole ecosystem. The review attempts to discover the potentials of conservation agriculture practices for sustainable crop productivity and economic profitability of smallholder farmers in Bangladesh. This study revealed that conservation farm management practice is a cost-effective modernized technique that has the ability to accelerate crop productivity and farmers income through minimum utilization of agricultural inputs. Although the concept of conservation agriculture is widely practiced in other parts of the world, Bangladesh is experiencing a slow rate of adoption during the last few years. The policy implication of the study suggests that the government should take coordinated and combined initiatives involving both public and private sector organizations to incorporate this concept into the mainstream agricultural system of Bangladesh. 


Abrol IP, Sangar S. 2006. Sustaining Indian agriculture–conservation agriculture the way forward. Current Science, 91(8): 1020–1025.

Akter S, Gathala MK. 2014. Adoption of conservation agriculture technology in diversified systems and impact on productivity: evidence from three districts in Bangladesh. 88th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Economics Society, Agro Paris Tech, Paris, France.

Akteruzzaman M, Jahan H, Haque MD. 2012. Practices of conservation agricultural technologies in diverse cropping systems in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics, 35(1 & 2): 143-144.

Aune JB. 2012. Conventional, organic and conservation agriculture: production and environmental impact. Agro-ecology and strategies for climate change. Sustainable Agriculture, 8: 149-165. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1905-7-7.

Baier-Fuentes H, Merigó JM, Amorós JE, Gaviria-Marín M. 2019. International entrepreneurship: a bibliometric overview. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 15(2): 385–429.

Basak JK, Titumir R, Dey NC. 2013. Climate change in Bangladesh: A historical analysis of temperature and rainfall data. Journal of Environment, 2: 41–46.

Basavanneppa MA, Gaddi AK, Chittapur BM. 2017. Yield maximization through resource conservation technologies under maize-chickpea cropping system in vertisols of Tunga Bhadra command project area of Karnataka. Research on Crops, 18(2): 225–231.

BBS. 2021. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka.

BBS. 2018. Report on agriculture and rural statistics. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka.

Bhatt R. (2017). Zero tillage impacts on soil environment and properties. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences, 10: 01–19.

Bisht P, Kumar P, Yadav M. 2014. Spatial dynamics for relative contribution of cropping pattern analysis on environment by integrating remote sensing and GIS. International Journal of Plant Production, 8(1): 1–17.

Brouziyne Y, Aziz A, Abdelaziz H, Rachid B, Rashyd Z, Lahcen B. 2018. Modelling sustainable adaptation strategies toward a climate-smart agriculture in a Mediterranean watershed under projected climate change scenarios. Agricultural Systems, 162: 154–163.

Clapperton MJ. 2003. Increasing soil biodiversity through conservation agriculture: managing the soil as a habitat. Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Conservation Agriculture on Producing in Harmony with Nature, Parana, Brazil.

Colicchia C, Strozzi F. 2012. Supply chain risk management: a new methodology for a systematic literature review. Supply Chain Management, 17(4): 403–418. 10.1108/13598541211246558.

CSISA. 2018. Zero tillage wheat: Training of trainer’s module.

Derpsch R, Friedrich T, Kassam A, Li H. 2010. Current status of adoption of no-till farming in the world and some of its main benefits. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 3(1): 1–25.

Dias, C. S. L., Rodrigues, R. G. and Ferreira, J. J. (2019). What’s new in the research on agricultural entrepreneurship? Journal of Rural Studies, 65: 99–115. j.jrurstud.2018.11.003.

Dumansky J, Reicosky DC, Peiretti RA. 2014. Pioneers in soil conservation and conservation agriculture. Special issue. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 2(1): 19-30.

FAO. 2016. Raised beds for improving crop water productivity and water efficiency in irrigated dryland agriculture, Egypt.

FAO. 2007. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

FAO. 2013. Food security and agricultural mitigation in developing countries: options for capturing synergies, Rome, Italy.

Farooq M, Siddique KH, Rehman H. 2011. Rice direct seeding: experiences, challenges and opportunities. Soil and Tillage Research, 111 (2): 87–98.

Friedrich T, Derpsch R, Kassam A. 2012. Overview of the global spread of conservation agriculture. The Journal of Field Actions, 6: 1–7.

Gathala MK, Ladha JK, Kumar V. 2011. Tillage and crop establishment affects sustainability of South Asian rice–wheat system. Agronomy Journal, 103(4): 961–971.

Greenland DJ. 1975. Bringing the green revolution to the shifting cultivator. Science 190. (4217): 841–844.

Hillel D. 1998. Environmental soil physics: fundamentals, applications, and environmental considerations. Elsevier.

Hobbs PR, Sayre K, Gupta R. 2008. The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Biological Sciences, 363(1491): 543–555.

Hossain MI. 2001. Performance of bed planting and nitrogen fertilizer under rice-wheat-mungbean cropping systems in Bangladesh.

IPCC. 2014. Summary for policymakers. In Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group-II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Jat ML, Malik RK, Saharawat YS. 2012. Proceedings of Regional Dialogue on Conservation Agricultural in South Asia.

Kafiluddin A, Islam MS. 2008. Fertilizer distribution, subsidy, marketing, promotion and agronomic use efficiency scenario in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the IFA Crossroads Asia Pacific, Melbourne, Australia.

Kassam A, Gottlieb Basch TF, Shaxson F. 2013. Sustainable soil management is more than what and how crops are grown. In: Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agro-ecosystems (eds. Lal, R. and Stewart, B. A.), 337–399.

Kaur A, Singh R, Singh S. 2017. Impact of resource conservation technologies in Haryana. Journal of Community Mobilization and Sustainable Development, 12(2): 257–264.

Kumar S. 2020. Precision farming in India-features, merits, demerits and challenges. Available at

Lai C, Chan C, Halbrendt J, Shariq L, Roul P, Idol T, Ray C, Evensen C. 2012. Comparative economic and gender, labor analysis of conservation agriculture practices in tribal villages in India. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 15(1): 73-86.

Lal R. 1976. No-tillage effects on soil properties under different crops in Western Nigeria. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 40(5): 762–768.

Lampkin NH, Padel S. 1994. The economics of organic farming. An international perspective. Cab International, Oxon, U.K.

Laxmi V, Erenstein O, Gupta RK. 2007. Impact of Zero Tillage in India’s Rice-Wheat Systems. CIMMYT.

López-Fernández MC, Serrano-Bedia AM, Pérez- Pérez M. 2016. Entrepreneurship and family firm research: a bibliometric analysis of an emerging field. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(2): 622–639.

Majumder KA, Ahmed JU, Fatema K. 2020. Comparative advantages of conservation agriculture practice in coastal areas of Chattogram division: a productivity and profitability analysis. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 13(2): 29-42. DOI: 10.9734/AJESS/2020/v13i230329.

Malik RK, Gupta RK, Singh CM, Yadav A, Brar SS, Thakur TC, Singh SS, Singh AK, Singh R, Sinha RK. 2005. Accelerating the adoption of resource conservation technologies in rice wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Proceedings of project workshop, Directorate of Extension Education, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU), June 1–2, 2005. Hisar, CCSHAU.

Mallett R, Hagen-Zanker J, Slater R, Duvendack M. 2012. The benefits and challenges of using systematic reviews in international development research. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 4(3): 445–455.

Mandal VP, Rehman S, Ahmed R. 2020. Land suitability assessment for optimal cropping sequences in Katihar district of Bihar, India using GIS and AHP. Spatial Information Research, 28(5): 589–599.

Mine S, Zoubek DC, Watson L, Lowe M. 2014. Adoption of conservation agriculture: Economic incentives in the Iowa corn value chain.

Ministry of Agriculture. (2021) Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka. Available at

Montgomery D. 2007. Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations. University of California Press, 287pp.

Naresh RK, Singh B, Kumar A. 2010. Diversifying the intensive cereal cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic plains through horticulture. Annals of Horticulture, 3(1): 1–11.

Nguema A, Norton J, Alwang DB, Taylor GW, Barrera V. 2013. Farm-level economic impacts of conservation agriculture in Ecuador. Experiments in Agriculture, 49: 134-147.

Pandey S, Velasco LE. 1999. Economics of alternative rice establishment methods in Asia: a strategic analysis. Social sciences division discussion paper, 1(1): 12–18. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.

Pandey VP, Singh B, Tripathi HP. 2013. Planting of crops with furrow irrigated raised bed system and advantages of raised bed planting in crop production. Available at: https://

Parrott N, Olesen JE, Hogh-Jensen H. 2006. Certified and non-certified organic farming in the developing world. Global development of organic agriculture: challenges and prospects. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.

Poddar PK, Miah MAM, Uddin MN, Dev DS. 2017. Conservation agriculture: A farm level practice in Bangladesh. Agricultural Science Digest, 37(3): 197-202. DOI: 10.18805/asd.v37i03.8992.

Rambhai B. 1958. The Silent Revolution. Jiwan Publication, New Delhi, India.

Rani M, Joshi H, Kumar K. 2021. Climate change scenario of hydro-chemical analysis and mapping spatio-temporal changes in water chemistry of water springs in Kumaun Himalaya. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23: 4659–4674.

Reicosky DC. 2001. Global environmental benefits of soil carbon management. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-1143-2-1.

Saharawat YS, Ladha JK, Pathak H. 2012. Simulation of resource-conserving technologies on productivity, income and greenhouse gas GHG emission in rice-wheat system. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 3(1): 9–22.

Sharma PK, Bhushan L, Ladha JK. 2002. Crop-water relations in rice-wheat cropping under different tillage systems and water-management practices in a marginally sodic, medium-textured soil. Water-wise rice production, 8. pp. 223-235. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines.

Shrestha J, Subedi S, Timsina KP. 2020. Conservation agriculture as an approach towards sustainable crop production: a review. Farming Management, 5: 7–15.

Singh B, Naresh RK, Singh KV. 2010. Influence of permanent raised bed planting and residue management on sustainability of vegetable based farming system in Western Indo Gangetic Plains. Annals of Horticulture, 3(2): 129–140.

Singh K, Kumar P, Singh BK. 2013. An associative relational impact of water quality on crop yield: a comprehensive index analysis using LISS-III sensor. IEEE Sensors Journal, (12): 4912–4917.

Smith P, House JI, Bustamante M. 2016. Global change pressures on soils from land use and management. Global Change Biology, 22(3): 1008–1028.

Solomon R. (2020). Precision agriculture in India: New technologies are here, but wide scale adoption is far off. Available at

Somasundaram J, Sinha NK, Dalal RC. 2020. No-till farming and conservation agriculture in South Asia – issues, challenges, prospects and benefits. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 39 (3): 236–279.

Tomar V, Mandal VP, Srivastava P. 2014. Rice equivalent crop yield assessment using MODIS sensors’ based MOD13A1-NDVI data. IEEE Sensors Journal, 14(10): 3599–3605.

Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, Moher D, Peters MD, Horsley T, Weeks L. 2018. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews: checklist and explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169(7): 467–473.

Tripathi SC, Das A. 2017. Bed planting for resource conservation, diversification and sustainability of wheat based cropping system. Journal of Wheat Research, 9(1): 1–11.

Tshuma N, Maphosa M, Ncube G, Dube T, Dube ZL. 2012. The Impact of conservation agriculture on food security and livelihoods in Mangwe district. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 14(5): 107-125.

Uddin MT, Dhar AR, Rahman MH. 2017. Improving farmers' income and soil environmental quality through conservation agriculture practice in Bangladesh. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 12(1): 55.65. DOI: 10.3844/ajabssp.2017.55.65.

Uddin MT, Dhar AR. 2016. Conservation Agriculture Practice and its Impact on Farmer’s Livelihood Status in Bangladesh. SAARC Journal of Agriculture, 14(1): 119-140. DOI: 10.3329/sja.v14i1.29582.

Van der Knaap LM, Leeuw FL, Bogaerts S, Nijssen LT. 2008. Combining Campbell standards and the realist evaluation approach: the best of two worlds? American Journal of Evaluation, 29(1), 48–57.

World Bank. 2021. Contributions of agriculture sector to the GDP of Bangladesh. Available at /NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS?locations=BD.

Willer H, Yussefi M, Sorensen MN. 2008. The world of organic agriculture statistics and emerging trends 2008, main results. The World of Organic Agriculture, Bonn, Germany.

Yadav MR, Parihar CM, Kumar R. 2017. Conservation agriculture and soil quality– an overview. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6: 1–28.

Yadav RS. 2019. Comparative economics of surface seeding and conventional method of wheat cultivation in Mirzapur district, U.P, India. MSc Thesis, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P, India.




How to Cite

Rana, M. M. (2023). Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Crop Productivity and Economic Return for the Smallholders of Bangladesh: A Systematic Review . Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 11(10), 2009–2015.



Review Articles