Nutritional Composition and Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AME) Value of Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) Full-Fat Meal for Broiler Chickens
Keywords:AME, broiler chickens, BSFL, waste
AbstractBlack soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermetia illucens L.) is a proven high-cost protein source replacer and could be grown in a range of bio-degradable waste materials where hardly incorporated into broiler diets locally. The present study was aimed to assess the nutritional composition of BSFL, and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) value of BSFL meal provided to broiler chickens. BSFL full-fat meal produced from kitchen waste as a substrate were examined for their proximate composition, minerals and fatty acid profile. Eighty, 21-d old unsexed Cobb-500 broiler chickens (BW±SD: 665.8 ±14.3 g) were assigned randomly into 16 battery cages (04 replicates, five birds/replicate). A maize-soybean meal-based diet was used as the basal diet which was partially substituted by pre-analyzed BSFL meal at the rates of 5%, 10%, and 15% to produce three test diets. Birds were fed in a completely randomized design for 7-d with a 4-d adaptation period. Excreta were collected for three days from day 25 to 28. The results envisaged that the crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) contents of the kitchen waste were 12.3%, and 10.5%, respectively. BSFL meal when analyzed had 34.4% CP and 47.3%, EE. The fatty acid (FA) profile of the kitchen waste was more or less similar to that of BSFL‘s meal. The estimated AME of the BSFL full-fat meal fed for broilers was estimated to be 15.7 MJ/kg. The BSFL full-fat meal can be utilized sustainably in feed formulation and has a high potential to replace costlier feed ingredients.
AOAC. 2005. Official method of Analysis. 18th Edition, Association of Officiating Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
Bandara T. 2018. Alternative feed ingredients in aquaculture: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6(2): 3087-3094.
Banks IJ, Gibson WT, Cameron MM. 2014. Growth rates of black soldier fly larvae fed on fresh human feces and their implication for improving sanitation. Tropical Medicine and International Health, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12228
Barry T. 2004. Evaluation of the economic, social, and biological feasibility of bio converting food wastes with the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens). PhD Dissertation. University of North Texas, Denaton, Texas, USA.
Barragan‐Fonseca KB, Dicke M, van Loon JJ. 2018. Influence of larval density and dietary nutrient concentration on performance, body protein, and fat contents of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12716
Basnayake BFA, Popuri S, Visvanathan C, Jayatilake A, Weerasoori I, Ariyawansha RTK. 2019. Concerted initiative for planned management of municipal solid waste in target provinces in Sri Lanka. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-018-0815-5
Bosch G, Zhang S, Oonincx DGAB, Hendriks WH. 2014. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods. Journal of Nutritional Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2014.23
Bovera F, Loponte R, Marono S, Piccolo G, Parisi G, Iaconisi V., Gasco L, Nizza A. 2016. Use of Tenebrio molitor larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits. Journal of Animal Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2015-9201
Cho JH, Kim IH. 2011. Fish meal–nutritive value. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01109.x
Čičková H, Newton GL, Lacy RC, Kozánek M. 2015. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment. Waste Management, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.09.026
Cockcroft BL. 2018. An evaluation of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae as a protein source for broiler chicken diets. PhD Dissertation, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch Central, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Dar WD, Laxmipathi Gowda CL. 2013. Declining agricultural productivity and global food security. Journal of Crop Improvement, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15427528. 2011.653097
Ellewidana DM, Perera NP, Pathirage KL, Magamage MPS. 2020. Sustainable Waste Management: Green Concept of Black soldier fly Larvae (Hermatia illucense) in different bio-degradable waste substrates. Journal of Dry Zone Agriculture, DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/jdza.v6i2.42
El-Wahab A, Meyer L, Kölln M, Chuppava B, Wilke V, Visscher C, Kamphues J. 2021. Insect Larvae Meal (Hermetia illucens) as a Sustainable Protein Source of Canine Food and Its Impacts on Nutrient Digestibility and Fecal Quality. Animals, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092525
Farrell DJ, Thomson E, Du Preez JJ, Hayes JP. 1991. The estimation of endogenous excreta and the measurement of metabolisable energy in poultry feedstuffs using four feeding systems, four assay methods and four diets. British Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669108417373
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2009. How to feed the world 2050: Global agriculture towards 2050. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome. 2009: 2–3
Härtel H. 1986. Influence of food input and procedure of determination on metabolisable energy and digestibility of a diet measured with young and adult birds. British Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668608416851
Lem A, Bjorndal T, Lappo A. 2014. Economic analysis of supply and demand for food up to 2030 – Special focus on fish and fishery products. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1089. Rome, FAO.
Jansen Z. 2018. The nutritional potential of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae as a protein source for broiler chicken diets. PhD Dissertation. Stellenbosch University Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Józefiak D, Józefiak A, Kierończyk B, Rawski M, Świątkiewicz S, Długosz J, Engberg RM. 2016. Insects–a natural nutrient source for poultry–a review. Annals of Animal Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2016-0010
Kaza S, Yao L, Bhada-Tata P, Van Woerden F. 2018. What a waste 2.0: a global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050. World Bank Publications. ISBN: 978-1-4648-1329-0 (Print) 978-1-4648-1347-4 (Electronic).
Khan S, Khan RU, Alam W, Sultan A. 2018. Evaluating the nutritive profile of three insect meals and their effects to replace soya bean in broiler diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1111/jpn.12809
Khusro M, Andrew NR, Nicholas A. 2012. Insects as poultry feed: a scoping study for poultry production systems in Australia. World's Poultry Science Journal, DOI: https://doi:10.1017/S0043933912000554
Kierończyk B, Sypniewski J, Rawski M, Czekała W, Świątkiewicz S, Józefiak, D. 2020. From waste to sustainable feed material: the effect of Hermetia illucens oil on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tract morphometry of broiler chickens. Annals of Animal Science, DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.2478/aoas-2019-0066
Lalander C, Diener S, Magri ME, Zurbrügg C, Lindström A, Vinnerås B. 2013. Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) From a hygiene aspect. Science of the Total Environment, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.033
Liu QL, Tomberlin JK, Brady JA, Sanford MR, Yu ZN. 2008. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure. Environmental Entomology, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-37.6.1525
Li Q, Zheng L, Cai H, Garza E, Yu Z, Zhou S. 2011. From organic waste to biodiesel: Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, makes it feasible. Fuel, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.fuel.2010.11.016
Makkar HP, Ankers P. 2014. Towards sustainable animal diets: a survey-based study. Animal Feed Science and Technology, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.09.018
Manzano-Agugliaro F, Sanchez-Muros MJ, Barroso FG, Martínez-Sánchez A, Rojo S, Pérez-Bañón C. 2012. Insects for biodiesel production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.10.020
Montagne L, Pluske JR, Hampson DJ. 2003. A review of interactions between dietary fibre and the intestinal mucosa, and their consequences on digestive health in young non-ruminant animals. Animal Feed Science and Technology, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00163-9
Mwaniki Z, Neijat M, Kiarie E. 2018. Egg production and quality responses of adding up to 7.5% defatted black soldier fly larvae meal in a corn–soybean meal diet fed to Shaver White Leghorns from wk 19 to 27 of age. Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey118
Nalle CL, Ravindran V, Ravindran G. 2012. Nutritional value of white lupins (Lupinus albus) for broilers: apparent metabolisable energy, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and production performance. Animal, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731111001686
Nanda S, Berruti F. 2021. Municipal solid waste management and landfilling technologies: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-020-01100-y
Newton GL, Booram CV, Barker RW, Hale OM. 1977. Dried Hermetia illucens larvae meal as a supplement for swine. Journal of Animal Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527 /jas1977.443395x
Newton L, Sheppard C, Watson DW, Burtle G, Dove R. 2005. Using the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, as a value-added tool for the management of swine manure. Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. 17: 18.
Nguyen TT, Tomberlin JK, Vanlaerhoven S. 2015. Ability of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae to recycle food waste. Environmental Entomology, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvv002
NRC. 1994. National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of domestic animals. Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th revised Edition, National Academy Press. Washington, DC., USA.
Onsongo VO, Osuga IM, Gachuiri CK, Wachira AM, Miano DM, Tanga CM, Ekesi S, Nakimbugwe D, Fiaboe KKM. 2018. Insects for income generation through animal feed: effect of dietary replacement of soybean and fish meal with black soldier fly meal on broiler growth and economic performance. Journal of Economic Entomology, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy118
Oonincx DG, Van Broekhoven S, Van Huis A, van Loon JJ. 2015. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products. PloS One, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222043
Ortiz LT, Rebole A, Alzueta C, Rodríguez ML, Trevino J. 2001. Metabolisable energy value and digestibility of fat and fatty acids in linseed determined with growing broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/ 713655010
Petersen CF, Meyer GB, Sauter EA. 1976. Comparison of metabolizable energy values of feed ingredients for chicks and hens. Poultry Science, 55(3): DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0551163
Potter LM, Matterson LD, Arnold AW, Pudelkiewicz WJ, Singsen EP. 1960. Studies in Evaluating Energy Content of Feeds for the Chick: I. The Evaluation of the Metabolizable Energy and Productive Energy of Alpha Cellulose. Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0391166
Rachmawati Buchori D, Hidayati P, Hem S, Fahmi MR. 2010. Development and nutritional content of Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) (Diptea: Stratiomydae) larvae on oil palm kernel. Journal Entomology Indonesia, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5994/ jei.7.1.28
Ravindran V. 2013. Poultry feed availability and nutrition in developing countries. Poultry Development Review. No 2. pp 60-63. ISBN: 978-92-5-108067-2 (Online)
Rawski M, Mazurkiewicz J, Kierończyk B, Józefiak D. 2020. Black soldier fly full-fat larvae meal as an alternative to fish meal and fish oil in Siberian sturgeon nutrition: The effects on physical properties of the feed, animal growth performance, and feed acceptance and utilization. Animals, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112119
Sacks FM, Willett WW. 1991. More on chewing the fat. New England Journal of Medicine. https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/ 10.1056/NEJM199112123252411
Schiavone A, Cullere M, De Marco M, Meneguz M, Biasato I, Bergagna S, Dezzutto D, Gai F, Dabbou S, Gasco L, Dalle Zotte A. 2017. Partial or total replacement of soybean oil by black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) fat in broiler diets: Effect on growth performances, feed-choice, blood traits, carcass characteristics and meat quality. Italian Journal of Animal Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/ 1828051X.2016.1249968
Scott TA, Boldaji F. 1997. Comparison of inert markers [chromic oxide or insoluble ash (Celite)] for determining apparent metabolizable energy of wheat-or barley-based broiler diets with or without enzymes. Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.4.594
Sealey WM, Gaylord TG, Barrows FT, Tomberlin JK, McGuire MA, Ross C, St‐Hilaire S. 2011. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, Hermetia illucens. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.2010.00441.x
Sheppard DC, Newton GL, Thompson SA, Savage S. 1994. A value-added manure management system using the black soldier fly. Bioresource Technology, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-8524(94)90102-3
Shumo M, Osuga IM, Khamis FM, Tanga CM, Fiaboe KK, Subramanian S, Ekesi S, van Huis A, Borgemeister C. 2019. The nutritive value of black soldier fly larvae reared on common organic waste streams in Kenya. Scientific Reports, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46603-z
Sibbald IR, Slinger SJ. 1963. A biological assay for metabolizable energy in poultry feed ingredients together with findings which demonstrate some of the problems associated with the evaluation of fats. Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0420313
Sibbald IR. 1975. The effect of level of feed intake on metabolizable energy values measured with adult roosters. Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0541990
Sibbald IR. 1982. Measurement of bioavailable energy in poultry feeding stuffs: a review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015238810447
Sibbald IR. 1985. The true metabolizable energy bioassay as a method for estimating bioavailable energy in poultry feeding stuffs. World's Poultry Science Journal, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19850015
Sibbald IR, Wolynetz, M.S. 1985. Relationships between estimates of bioavailable energy made with adult cockerels and chicks: effects of feed intake and nitrogen retention. Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0640127
Spranghers T, Ingels K, Michiels J, De Clercq P, De Smet S, Van Der Borght M, Spaepen R, Verbinnen B, Heylen T, Eeckhout M. 2016. Black soldier fly larvae as a novel feed source for monogastric farm. In Celebrating food: International congress FoodTech 2016: 295-295.
St‐Hilaire S, Sheppard C, Tomberlin JK, Irving S, Newton L, McGuire MA, Mosley EE, Hardy RW, Sealey W. 2007. Fly prepupae Petersen a feedstuff for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.2006.00073.x
Sugden LG. 1973. Metabolizable energy of wild duck foods. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada.
Sumbule EK, Ambula MK, Osuga IM, Changeh JG, Mwangi DM, Subramanian S, Salifu D, Alaru PA, Githinji M, Van Loon JJ, Dicke M. 2021. Cost-effectiveness of black soldier fly larvae meal as substitute of fishmeal in diets for layer chicks and growers. Sustainability, DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.3390/su13116074
Teguia A, Beynen A. 2005. Alternative feedstuffs for broilers in Cameroon. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 17: 3.
Tejeda OJ, Kim WK. 2021. Role of Dietary Fiber in Poultry Nutrition. Animals, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020461
Uushona T. 2015. Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae as a protein source for broiler production, PhD Dissertation. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
Veldkamp T, Van Duinkerken G, van Huis A, Lakemond CMM, Ottevanger E, Bosch G, Van Boekel T. 2012. Insects as a sustainable feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets: a feasibility study (No. 638). Wageningen UR Livestock Research. ISSN 1570 – 8616.
Vogtmann H, Pfirter HP, Prabucki AL. 1975. A new method of determining metabolisability of energy and digestibility of fatty acids in broiler diets. British Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00071667508416222
Webster CD, Rawles SD, Koch JF, Thompson KR, Kobayashi Y, Gannam AL, Twibell RG, Hyde NM. 2016. Bio‐Ag reutilization of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by‐product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture Nutrition, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12316
Willis S. 2003. The use of soybean meal and full fat soybean meal by the animal feed industry. In 12th Australian soybean conference. Soy Australia, Bundaberg. 2003, February.
Wu S, Choct M, Pesti G. 2020. Historical flaws in bioassays used to generate metabolizable energy values for poultry feed formulation: a critical review. Poultry Science, 99(1): 385-406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez511
Yaghobfar A, Boldaji F. 2002. Influence of level of feed input and procedure on metabolisable energy and endogenous energy loss (EEL) with adult cockerels. British Poultry Science, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166021000025091
Zaman QU, Mushtaq T, Nawaz H, Mirza MA, Mahmood S, Ahmad T, Babar ME, Mushtaq MMH. 2008. Effect of varying dietary energy and protein on broiler
performance in hot climate. Animal Feed Science & Technology. 146: 302-312.
Zheng L, Li Q, Zhang J, Yu, Z. 2012. Double the biodiesel yield: Rearing black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, on solid residual fraction of restaurant waste after grease extraction for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.10.004
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.